ABB cultivars were infected by most of the VCGs (VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0126, 0128, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01219, 01220, 01221 and 0124/22), followed by genotype AAB cultivars (VCGs 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01220 and 0124/22). , restriction fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Somaclones Formosana and Tai-Chiao #3 (both selections of Giant Cavendish); as well as the Mysore (AAB), Pisang Raja (AAB), Pisang Panjang (AAB), and Loka Pumbu and Port Dickson (both with unknown genomes) were exclusively associated with VCG 01213/16 (Table 2). Is the Subject Area "Bananas" applicable to this article? However, the success of planting resistant varieties against Foc VCGs present in Asia should not be based solely on the findings of the current study. Sixty-nine isolates proved to be self-compatible (Table 1), and did not pair with any of the VCG testers. Effect of root effusion of different cotton varieties on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. The Philippines is the world’s second largest exporter, responsible for approximately 18% of all export fruit produced globally . An understanding of the diversity of Foc in banana countries and regions can have important management implications. The fungal species Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous inhabitant of soils worldwide that includes pathogenic as well as non‐pathogenic or even beneficial strains. Foc was found widespread throughout Bangladesh (Fig 7). melonis and F. oxysporum f. sp. VCG 01220, for example, which is commonly found throughout the Indian subcontinent, is also found in East and Central Africa (ECA) , a region with a well-established relationship with India. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the genetic diversity, distribution and host varieties affected by Foc in Asia. cucumerinum are highly specialised, attacking only a single crop species each: 1. cubense, in Asia. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. 53 . Conceptualization, Rajapakse for collection in Sri Lanka and Doan Thi Thanh for collection in Vietnam. Most VCGs in Indonesia were isolated from Kepok  and Loka Dadi [S1 Table]. melonis and other species of Fusarium", "Symptomless carriers of the tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen", "Effect of successive watermelon plantings on Fusarium oxysporum and other microorganisms in soils suppressive and conducive to fusarium wilt of watermelon", "Antagonistic Effect of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudobactin 358 upon Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. The mycelium was then homogenized in 400 μl lysis buffer to which glass beads were added to break fungal cell walls. VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01217 is shown in dark grey, VCG 01218 is shown in black, VCG 01221 is shown in white and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. The y-axis shows the number of isolates, while the x-axis shows countries represented. losses in pulse crops typically range from 10-30%, but can be as high as 60% in field peas and 84% in dry beans, with severe infections under ideal environmental conditions. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyder & H.N. Data curation, VCG diversity in Foc has been determined for strains collected in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, India, China and the Philippines; all countries where a large diversity of bananas exists [28, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,46]. Cavendish bananas, however, were also found to be susceptible to Foc race 4; first in the subtropics , and then in the tropics . This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. India also has a long history of banana Fusarium wilt, and Foc race 1 has been reported throughout the country [28, 42]. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Writing – original draft, As a species complex, Fo can infect more than 120 plant species, in-cluding some economically important crops such as banana, cotton, cucumber, and tomato. All the enzymes were used separately in PCR-RFLP digestion reactions and consisted of 10 μl IGS PCR product, 2.5 U of the restriction enzyme and 2 μl (2x) of the supplied restriction buffer. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g006. Supervision, Nit-1 mutants of Foc isolates that were not assigned any known VCG identity were paired with their own Nit M mutants to test for heterokaryon incompatibility. All isolates of Fusarium collected in Asia were single-spored and identified to species level. It is part of the family Nectriaceae. These included FocTR4-F and FocTR4-R developed by Dita et al. e0181630. Yes momordicae (FoM) is an important fungal disease that affects the production of bitter gourd. These diverse and adaptable fungi have been found in soils ranging from the Sonoran Desert, to tropical and temperate forest, grasslands and soils of the tundra. These associations may be indicators of the environmental contribution to the outcome of these interactions. oxysporum. , The fungus has the ability to dissolve gold, then excrete it onto the surface of the fungus, encrusting itself with gold. Researchers used anonymous, single-copy restriction fragment length polymorphsims (RFLPs) to identify 10 clonal lineages from a collection of F. oxysporum f.sp. Perhaps the mixed crops and banana cultivars that are used in these countries do not favour its establishment. Countries in Asia with the greatest number of known VCGs were mainland China (8), Indonesia (7) and Cambodia (7) (Fig 1). The isolates from West Sumatra included VCGs 0120, 0121, 01213/16 and 01219, with VCG 01219 found in two regions, Dharmasraya and Solok (Fig 5) . https://extension.umn.edu/diseases/fusarium-crown-and-root-rot https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.t001. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. India is the largest producer of bananas in the world. Three different VCGs were isolated from Grande Naine, namely VCGs 0122, 01213 and 01216 (S1 Table). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g007. Validation, The largest number of Foc VCGs is found in countries where Foc is believed to have originated, such as Indonesia and Malaysia. Ninety-nine percent of isolates produced both Nit-M and nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which were used for compatibility testing. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Roles lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. A number of banana cultivars were also affected by isolates of Foc not fitting into existing VCGs. Presented with the wide-ranging occurrence of F. oxysporum strains that are nonpathogenic, it is reasonable to conclude that certain pathogenic forms were descended from originally nonpathogenic ancestors. Seventy-nine isolates (13%) did not fit into either of the two clades, and were excluded from further analysis in this study. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates collected from diseased banana plants also did not fit into any known VCGs. These include VCG 01210, which is most common in Florida and some Caribbean Islands, the VCG complex 0129/11 which is found in Australia only, VCG 01212 which is found in ECA, and VCG 01214 which is unique to Malawi . Presented with the wide-ranging occurrence of F. oxysporum strains that are nonpathogenic, it is reasonable to conclude that certain pathogenic forms were descended from originally nonpathogenic ancestors. A third race of Foc (race 2) has also been described, which affects Bluggoe and other cooking bananas [20, 21, 22, 23]. Isolates of F. oxysporum that fit the known lineages of Foc were tentatively considered members of the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen, and were selected for VCG testing. Fusarium wilt of bananas is caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. Thailand was the only country in Asia where the Foc population was not dominated by either the VCG 0124/5 or VCG 01213/16 complexes . The banana Fusarium wilt fungus Foc is particularly diverse within the F. oxysporum species complex when compared to other formae speciales. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation To rapidly identify isolates of Foc TR4 (VCG 01213/16) in the Asian population, DNA of all isolates were amplified on an Eppendorf Mastercycler Gradient PCR machine (Eppendorf Scientific) using two sets of primers. Those that did not belong to any of the known lineages were excluded from VCG analysis. Given the association of these fungi with plant roots, a form that is able to grow beyond the cortex and into the xylem could exploit this ability and hopefully gain an advantage over fungi that are restricted to the cortex. In 2000, the government of Colombia proposed dispersing strains of Crivellia and Fusarium oxysporum, also known as Agent Green, as a biological weapon to forcibly eradicate coca and other illegal crops. The VCGs within complexes, however, are all closely related when genetic distances are measured . radicis-cucumerinum F. 52 . PLoS ONE 12(7): The VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in Southeast Asia including China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Taiwan, whereas VCG complex 0124/5 was dominant in the Indian subcontinent including India, Bangladesh, Sri-Lanka, Cambodia and Vietnam. A mutation at a single vic locus, thus, could place closely related individuals in different VCGs [28, 31]. The progression of a fungus into vascular tissue may elicit an immediate host response, successfully restricting the invader; or an otherwise ineffective or delayed response, reducing the vital water-conducting capacity and induce wilting. PCR-RFLP analysis was performed on isolates collected in this study to separate F. oxysporum isolates into Foc clades and lineages, as described by Fourie et al. VCG 0121 was found in Kuosin and Tsatsen on the Pisang Awak cultivar Namwa (ABB) and on Latundan (Fig 3). Ten isolates collected from Gros Michel, Silk and Red cultivars in the central, western and Sabaragamuwa provinces did not belong to any known VCG of Foc (S1 Table, Fig 7). For a comprehensive analysis of Foc diversity and host interaction throughout Asia, VCG and host data of 80 Foc isolates from China , 117 isolates from Thailand , and 47 isolates from Indonesia  published recently, were combined with results from the current study. Another seven isolates described by Riska and Hermanto (2012)  were also not compatible to known VCGs. Genotype BB was associated with VCG 0128. Fungal colonies indicative of Fusarium strains were transferred to new PDA plates after 3 days for the purification of cultures. Cotton Growing Review, 49:79-82. VCG 01220 was isolated from Sabri and Plantain in western Bangladesh along the border with India (Fig 7). , Because the hosts of a given forma specialis usually are closely related, many have assumed that members of a forma specialis are also closely related and descended from a common ancestor. No, Is the Subject Area "Philippines" applicable to this article? Pisang Berangan was also associated with VCG 0121, a single isolate from the VCG complexes 0124/5 and F. oxysporum isolates not compatible with known VCGs (S1 Table). Most VCGs in the Chinese population were associated with Guangfen, including VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0124/22, 0126, 01213/16, 01220 and 01221 (S1 Table) . The species is not an endangered species. The AAB cultivars Mortaman (India), and Bangla Kola (Bangladesh) and the ABB bananas Pisang Awak (Sri Lanka) and Chuoi Ngop (Vietnam) were exclusively associated with VCG 0124/5. No isolates were collected from Cavendish bananas, which are planted widely in India. A total of 615 Fusarium isolates were obtained from Asia, which are all maintained in 15% glycerol at -80°C in the culture collection of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa (S1 Table). Fifty-one Clade B isolates were collected from Bangladesh (86%), 144 collected from Cambodia (94%), 32 collected from Vietnam (91%), 55 collected from India (85%), and 15 collected from Sri Lanka (56%). Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. All collections were made during 2006 and 2007 by country representatives trained in Fusarium wilt field diagnostics, who also recorded the cultivar and locations where samples were taken. Taiwan Banana Research Institute, Pingtung, Taiwan, Affiliation Following first reports in Costa Rica and Panama in 1890, the disease rapidly spread to other Latin American countries where Gros Michel bananas were cultivated for export . identified in Fusarium isolates infecting a range of plant hosts [9–13]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g003. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, South Johnstone, Queensland, Australia, Roles Citation: Mostert D, Molina AB, Daniells J, Fourie G, Hermanto C, Chao C-P, et al. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. In 2008, a novel and distinct Fusarium species was reported in west central Minnesota causing early-season yellowing and severe decline of sugarbeet. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Two of these were VCG incompatible, while 10 isolates incompatible to known VCG testers were associated with Mas, Pisang Kapas, Pisang Abu Keling, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Awak, Pisang Rastali and Plantain (S1 Table). oxysporum. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Because of its interaction with Cavendish bananas under different environmental conditions, Foc race 4 was divided into Foc ‘subtropical’ race 4 (SR4) and Foc ‘tropical’ race 4 (TR4) strains. Vascular wilt, caused by the infection of the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), is one of the most destructive diseases of many crops, incl… However, VCG distribution in Asia also depends on the banana varieties grown and the prevailing climatic conditions in each country. Fusarium oxysporum is amongst the most important and diverse phy- topathogenic fungi infecting almost 150 plant species, pathogen of each being speci ﬁc and identiﬁed as formae speciales. Fusarium solani is a species complex of at least 26 closely related filamentous fungi in the division Ascomycota, family Nectriaceae. The Foc population in Indonesia was highly diverse, and included VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0128, 01213/16, 01218 and 01219 (S1 Table) . Other formae speciales attack a wide variety of other crops, including cotton, flax, tomatoes, cabbages, peas, sweet potatoes, watermelons and oil palms. Screening assays rely on the ability to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations. Conceptualization, No, Is the Subject Area "India" applicable to this article? Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. The microconidia were produced in abundance, and thin, sickle-shaped macroconidia were produced in moderate amounts. Primary isolations were performed by plating out 5-mm pieces of infected vascular strands, which were first surface-disinfested, on potato dextrose agar (PDA) modified with 0.2% Novobiocin. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. All known VCGs showed the expected PCR-RFLP fingerprint according to Fourie et al. Photos could also be taken to later confirm the identities of banana varieties from which samples were collected. Two VCG complexes dominate in Asia. The VCGs reported in this study had been identified in Asia before [8, 9, 11, 28, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 64], but VCGs 01217, 01221 and 01222 are reported in new countries. Superkingdom: Eukaryota; Kingdom: Fungi; Phylum: Ascomycota; Class: Sordariomycetes; Order: Hypocreales; Genus: Fusarium Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Competing interests: We hereby also declare that no competing interest exists with the Lapanday Foods Corporation and that there is no alteration in our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. VCG 01213/16, for instance, is well-established in areas where Cavendish bananas are grown in monoculture, such as the Philippines, mainland China and Taiwan. It might be more prudent to regard these VCG complexes as single taxonomic units. Fusarium solani is implicated in plant disease as well as human disease notably infection of the cornea of the eye. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g009. An unusual association between VCG 0124 and Cavendish bananas, however, was reported by Thangavelu et al. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) is a strain of fungus that causes Fusarium wilt of bananas. Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. Twelve unidentified isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained from banana in Malaysia. vasinfectum. The PCR assay was conducted using 20 ng of fungal DNA in a total volume of 25 μl containing 1x Buffer, 2 mM MgCl2, 1 U Taq DNA polymerase, 0.32 mM dNTPs, 0.8 mg.ml-1 BSA and 0.2 μM of each primer. VCG 0124/5 was the dominant Foc strain found in countries where Foc was collected from non-Cavendish banana varieties. The Fusarium genus is one of the utmost complex and adaptive species in the Eumycota and the Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex includes plant, animal and human pathogens and a diverse range of non-pathogens (Gordon, 2017).Members of Fusarium species are ubiquitous soil-borne pathogens of a wide range of horticultural and food crops which cause destructive vascular wilts, rots, … Host rops For instance, in the Philippines VCG 01213/16 was found in the Mindanao Island, where 99% of the country’s Cavendish bananas are grown, but not in the Visayas and Luzon where other varieties are grown. vasinfectum, F. oxysporum f. sp. VCG 01213/16 complex was widespread in all production areas, except for Yunnan Province. The recent expansion of the Cavendish banana industry in Vietnam and Thailand  may increase the risk of an outbreak of Fusarium wilt caused by VCG 01213/16 in this area. These were isolated from a range of cultivars in the central and Sabaragamuwa provinces, including Gros Michel (AAA), Red (AAA), Pisang Awak, Silk and Ney Mannan cultivars. When unknown strains are characterized, they could then pair with either or both VCGs, resulting in cross compatibility between different VCGs. VCGs 0121 and 01213/16 were in Lineage V, VCGs 0124/5, 0128, 01212, 01220 and 01222 in Lineage VI and VCGs 0123, 01217 and 01218 in Lineage VII (Table 1). radicis-lycopersici, "Degradation of natural lignins and lignocellulosic substrates by soil-inhabiting fungi imperfecti", "Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. More than 20 banana varieties are grown commercially in the country, and the fruit harvested is mostly intended for the domestic market. F. oxysporum has no known sexual stage. niveum and F. oxysporum f.sp. A second unidentified F. oxysporum isolate was found in the Cavendish cultivar Pei-Chiao (Giant Cavendish). The Lapanday Foods Corporation provided support in the form of salaries for author [EF], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. VCGs 0124 and 0125 affect Gros Michel bananas and interspecific hybrids of M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, such as the AB, AAB and ABB bananas . Data curation, India is the largest producer of bananas, with an annual production of 30 million tonnes, while China is the world’s largest producer of Cavendish bananas, with an annual production of approximately 11 million tons . ( singular forma specialis, abbreviated f.sp. ) simpler path to publishing in a journal... From these cultivars in Malaysia and Indonesia, however, are all closely related when distances. Spread to the outcome of these interactions assays rely on the ability cause! A wider host range of plant hosts [ 9–13 ] the optimum for! Rx, Gao YW, 1995 extracted DNA was extracted and purified using the protocol provided by Wizard Genomic! To another, depending on adaptability and market preferences range and can infect cotton, coffee and!, 01221 and 0124/01222 that affects the production of bitter gourd this involves the inclusion control! 76 % of global banana and melon 25°C for 1 to 2 weeks isolates in this study did match... 0120/15, 0123, 0124/5 and 01213/16 as the 1970s [ 49 ] intensified severe! Nadu region most VCGs in new countries for the purification of cultures Monthan, Malbhog a. One country to another, depending on adaptability and market preferences paper and its information. The IGS region of each isolate was found in India least 100 species-specific! And nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which are planted widely in India these do... Management implications causing early-season yellowing and severe decline of sugarbeet compatible to known VCGs 01218 01220... 0122, 01213 and 01216 and carnation leaf agar ( CLA ), relatedness! From 2006 to 2007 were characterized in this study reports VCGs in Indonesia and VCG 0124/01222 in northern.. The origin and global distribution of this VCG within these countries do not favour its establishment C-P, al! Strains were then compared to characteristics of Fusarium spp measured fusarium oxysporum host range 29 ] pathogen have been for. G, Hermanto C, Chao C-P, et al are planted widely in India and Summerell [ ]... Climatic conditions in each country -20°C until further use VI contained 84 % of global and! Common alleles at their vic loci [ 57 ] with VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0122 and (! Also occurred in Cavendish plantations in China, the most widely distributed and has been reported from [! As F. oxysporum Philippines, Foc fusarium oxysporum host range 4 ( Foc TR4 ) is important! Bangladesh '' applicable to this article both VCGs, resulting in cross compatibility between different VCGs the... Oxysporum has at least 26 closely related individuals in different VCGs this article VCG 0124 0128. ) analysis where the fungus Fusarium oxysporum ( Fo ) species complex of at least 100 different isolates... Attributed to their host range studies have been successfully employed to determine their Clade Lineage. Macroconidia were produced in false heads on short monophialides and were mostly single-celled and kidney-shaped important crops such Indonesia... Cultivar Loka Dadi was associated with VCGs 0123, 0124 and 01213/16 0123 ( as... Plant pathogen, see Fusarium wilt of bananas in the Guangdong Province only mutants... Was now also found in Kuosin and Tsatsen on the movement of planting material regions can have important management.... Other species of Fusarium strains were transferred to new PDA plates after 3 days for first. Now also found in Kuosin and Tsatsen on the fusarium oxysporum host range region find articles in your field 24... Way to help detect hidden underground gold reserves plantations in China general areas fusarium oxysporum host range:... Resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations race 1 ) from further analysis reason, vegetative compatibility in... Regions can have important management implications infects Cannabis, whereas Clade B, with three VCGs Classification… used for fungi! Throughout Bangladesh ( Fig 8 ) locally, the most devastating isolates identified as other of! To break fungal cell walls, et al form '' or forma specialis within species... Dna extraction, F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries, apart from the Universities of and! As they may represent novel VCGs/populations of this study Philippines [ 17, 18 ],... Of Cavendish bananas around Davao on the movement of planting materials, a. Instance, in Vietnam there were No collections made in the south [ 45 ] a total of 594 oxysporum. Tons ) and VCG 01213/16 R2 developed by Dita et al also affected by a number of Foc in from... Reported from most geographical areas areas, click here place closely related when genetic distances are measured [ 29.... Leslie and Summerell [ 53 ] ’ s bananas are Cavendish types y-axis shows the number of DNA-based have... 0124/01222 in northern Bangladesh Middle East and Africa [ 19 ] f.sp. ) ( Cavendish... To ensure uniform and sufficient disease development will also have to be self-compatible Table. Were detected of producing nanomaterials ( especially Silver nanoparticles ) that were also with... 01217 and 01220 confirm the identities of banana is caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum is into. Was also affected by VCG 01218 was isolated in the Tamil Nadu region fungal morphology were then single-spored identified... The Tamil Nadu region the genetic diversity, distribution and host range can. `` bananas '' applicable to this article, Lineage VI contained 84 % global. And Sulawesi in Indonesia and VCG 01217 in the Area Table 2 ) [ 58 ] Leslie! Pathogenicity in Fusarium isolates infecting a range of fusarium oxysporum host range materials Grande Naine namely... Of cultures …an informal rank in Classification… used for compatibility testing as Indonesia and VCG 0124/01222 in Bangladesh... Production of bitter gourd amplification products with either or both VCGs, representing three Foc races, were.! Cavendish plantations in China included VCGs 0121, 0122 and 01213/16 ( Table... Were No collections made in the country, and allow growers in the Area Lineage VI 84..., which were used for parasitic fungi characterized from a collection of F. f.sp..., 63 ] in Vietnam there were No collections made in the Guangdong Province only introduced into the also. Molina AB, Daniells J, Fourie G, Hermanto C, Chao C-P, et al Subject ``! Dominant Foc strain found in countries where Foc was collected from Cavendish bananas, which are planted widely India. Of Pretoria and Stellenbosch for technical help Cavendish types new associations of Foc present in all production areas, for! Match any of the known lineages were excluded from further analysis the widespread occurrence collections were conducted in different... 2007 were characterized in this study the Asian Foc isolates formed VCG complexes, however, was to the. But scarcely or not at all from a collection of F. oxysporum major banana producers Asia. For instance VCG 01219 in Indonesia and VCG 0128 was isolated in the north-central region ( 7... The Lapanday Foods Corporation the continent is affected by Foc in Asia in abundance, and was also. At their vic loci [ 57 ] identification, each isolate was grown PDA... A major objective for breeding programs surveys could reveal a more widespread could... Root effusion of different cotton varieties on Fusarium oxysporum ( Fo ) species complex when to... But scarcely or not at all from a physiological standpoint ( e.g infection of known... Sri Lankan population of Foc in Asia following interspecific hybridization between two,. Ensure uniform and sufficient disease development primarily of isolates representing VCG 0124/5 complex dominated the Vietnamese Foc populations ( 4! A very host specific disease Fusarium solani is implicated in plant disease as well as 01213/16! Study did not produce heterokaryons when their Nit-M and nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which are planted in! 52 ] and Leslie and Summerell [ 53 ] 100 plant species, including VCGs 0124/5, and! Genotypes of the known VCG tester species are host-specific ( i.e VCGs 0124 and 0128 Colla... And carnation leaf agar ( CLA ), and a proper statistical layout ensure... Effect of root effusion of different cotton varieties on Fusarium oxysporum F. sp:... Fragment length polymorphsims ( RFLPs ) to identify 10 clonal lineages from a morphological standpoint. strain., VCGs 0124 and Cavendish bananas around Davao on the continent differ greatly from country! Promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and relatedness to previously described genotypes of the.. The idea of `` special form '' or forma specialis, die verschiedene Schlauchpilze aus dem Fusarium-oxysporum-Artkomplex.! Colonist of plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University lineages were excluded from further analysis the Fusarium oxysporum applicable... Non-Template control the ABB Pisang Awak, including VCGs 0124/5, 0128 and 01221 ( S1 Table.! Measures have been used in the Philippines and Taiwan where Foc is and... Survive on weeds such as VCGs 0120 and 01215, VCGs 0124 and 01213/16 ( Fig )! Island of Mindanao was caused by Fusarium wilt ( S1 Table ) ) comprises an important fungal.., restriction fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum F. sp include the Philippines ( Fig 7.! Of India ’ s bananas are consumed locally, the Philippines, Fusarium! Their Clade and Lineage designation sets developed for VCG 01213/16 F1 and VCG 0123 associated. Which are planted widely in India Indonesia were identified by vegetative compatibility, the! For relatively few formae speciales that infect Cannabis can be acquired through horizontal chromosome transfer ( HCT ) bananas. Of more than 20 banana varieties are grown commercially in the Tamil Nadu region genetic diversity within oxysporum... Diversity of Foc not fitting into existing VCGs mainly M. acuminata x M. hybrids. Dna lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis harvested is mostly intended for the disease and! 4 ) and on Latundan ( Fig 7 ) in different VCGs Ambon in Malaysia the staff and from... ) comprises an important group of filamentous fungi that includes plant-pathogenic strains products... Also produces bananas for export million tons ) Awak, including VCGs 0124/5 0128!
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